- Solar surface turbulence increases causing an expansion of the Earth’s atmosphere.
- Resistance to outgoing longwave radiation reduces, energy is lost to space faster.
- The stratosphere cools. Possibly also the number of chemical reactions in the upper atmosphere increases due to the increased solar effects with faster destruction of ozone.
- The tropopause rises.
This list continues for 26 points, not an equation in the mix. So why am I so hooked on equations? Take the first item, and call "Solar surface turbulence" T, and the size of the atmosphere, A. Saying T goes up, so A goes up, could be like:
which would predict a nice linear response. What about this:
Each of these is a translation of "when T goes up, A goes up", but they have radically different forms, and they have radically different effects. You can't build a proper scientific model in words alone. Words are not precise, and there are many different ways to translate them into something that is precise, that can actually make meaningful predictions.
A model of just words is not really a model, in the scientific sense. Lord Kelvin said it best:
"In physical science the first essential step in the direction of learning any subject is to find principles of numerical reckoning and practicable methods for measuring some quality connected with it. I often say that when you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot measure it, when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meagre and unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but you have scarcely in your thoughts advanced to the state of Science, whatever the matter may be."